Despite having different cell tropism, the pathogenesis and immunobiology of the diseases caused by Theileria parva and Theileria annulata are remarkably similar.
Live vaccines have been available for both parasites for over 40 years, but although they provide strong protection, practical disadvantages have limited their widespread application.
Efforts to develop alternative vaccines using defined parasite antigens have focused on the sporozoite and intracellular schizont stages of the parasites and current work is investigating alternative antigen delivery systems in an attempt to improve the levels of protection.
Nene, V. and Morrison, W.I. 2016. Approaches to vaccination against Theileria parva and Theileria annulata. Parasite Immunology 38(12):724-734. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pim.12388